Transgender adults had higher odds than cisgender adults for income at or below 200% of the federal poverty line and education levels of high school or less.
Transgender women faced increased odds of socioeconomic risk, including lower income, less education, and lower employment rates. Transgender women were older on average than other transgender subgroups and may be additional affected by ageism.
to be single than cisgender men and women. Transphobia within both the general population and sexual and gender minority communities may contribute to smaller pools of potential relationship partners for transgender men.
to have fewer children than cisgender men and women and were more likely to live alone than transgender nonbinary and cisgender respondents. Consequences of this social exclusion and isolation may contribute to adverse health outcomes.
Despite a majority receiving healthcare coverage and having a primary care provider, many transgender adults experienced financial barriers to healthcare access.
Many transgender adults demonstrated resiliency by participating in health-promoting activities at a similar rate as cisgender adults, despite barriers to healthcare access.
Recommended citation: Fredriksen Goldsen, K. I., Romanelli, M., Hoy-Ellis, C. P., & Jung, H. (2022). Health, economic and social disparities among transgender women, transgender men and transgender nonbinary adults: Results from a population-based study. Preventive medicine, 156, 106988. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2022.106988
© Goldsen Institute 2023, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.